These include policy papers, thought-leadership and research reports. They are available here for download by our members, the wider industry, policymakers, regulators and the general public. All of these reports are free to download, unless otherwise stated. Accessing finance as a small-scale housebuilder is one of the most significant elements of the development process, and can be a daunting prospect, particularly for less experienced developers.
Share How do other countries with more fiscal devolution avoid postcode lotteries?
Lessons from Sweden, France and Canada on how to design a new local government funding system. Blog post published on 16 February by Hugo Bessis The prospect of devolving more financial powers to UK cities raises legitimate concerns about those places that are less able to generate their own revenues.
Such an unconstructive debate means we fail to look overseas for examples of local government funding systems that sit between total centralisation on the one hand and full autonomy on the other. Income tax is the main source of local government funding and represents 70 per cent of local revenues.
But alongside significant fiscal autonomy, there is also considerable redistribution between places. To smooth out disparities in income, local authorities with tax revenues below a set threshold receive an income redistribution grant.
This is mainly funded by central government, but about 10 per cent of the amount comes from local authorities with above-average income tax revenues.
A second redistribution grant which is aimed at correcting the differences in the cost of delivering services is completely funded by local government, at no cost to central government. In France, about half of local government revenues come from local taxes, mostly from local property and business taxes.
Local government also receives general grants from central government, as well as additional redistribution funds to account for specific wealth and population disparities. Canada is one of the most decentralised countries in the OECD, with about half of government revenues raised and retained locally through both provinces and municipalities.
As a comparison, a third of tax revenues are raised by US states and municipalities. But unlike the US, there is a formal redistribution mechanism between provinces. At the city level, municipalities rely on locally raised revenues, with only 20 per cent of their funding coming from grants.
But the dependence on this one tax stream is financially risky, and in Canada tends to result in urban sprawl. These three examples show that it is possible to create systems with varying degrees of fiscal autonomy and redistribution.
In the UK the new local government funding system should look to learn from the best of these other systems while avoiding the pitfalls.
This means providing stronger incentives for local authorities to support economic growth; improving the existing system of local taxes by addressing issues in the current business rates and council tax system ; and diversifying local tax streams by enabling local authorities to retain stamp duty land tax and other property tax revenues as well as business rates.
Our report Beyond business rates explores these issues in greater detail. Fiscal autonomy on its own is not a sufficient condition to ensure local authorities get the adequate flexibility to support economic growth.
My next blog will look at the additional responsibilities that cities in more devolved countries hold compared to the UK.Use Royal Mail's Postcode and Address Finder to search for any UK address or postal code.
Simply type part of the address for a list of suggestions. If your business regularly searches for more than 50 addresses a day, Our Postcode Finder and Address Finder is for customers who occasionally need to look up address details. UK business population is booming, but this is not felt across the whole UK UK businesses are booming in general but there remain very strong regional differences.
For example, numbers of SMEs in London have increased at more than ten times the rate of those in Northern Ireland.
Description A Skill to find postcode of an address (UK Only). You can ask Alexa to find the postcode for any address in UK. Example: Alexa, ask postcode finder to get the postcode of Barbican Alexa, ask postcode finder to find the postcode of Barbican.
Sep 15, · its like this One or two letters for the area. one or two numbers for the sub area, with the possibity of a letter in london, another number and two letters for the yunusemremert.com: Resolved.
UK Finance commissions and publishes reports as part of our work to represent the banking and finance industry.
These include policy papers, thought-leadership and research reports. They are available here for download by our members, the wider industry, policymakers, regulators. May 08, · All UK postcodes are two letters followed by a 1- or 2-digit number, then a 1- or 2-digit number followed by two letters.
The exception is London, where the first part of the postcode is 1 or 2 letters followed by 1 or 2 digits followed by a yunusemremert.com: Resolved.